Garment buyers, middlemen and suppliers are just beginning to come to grips with the changes that will take place in the quota-free world after 2005. Retailers must change to ensure they get the lowest costs, garment importers and export agents must define a new role for themselves, and half the factories in the world will almost certainly fail. In this analysis of the international garment industry post-2005 David Birnbaum offers some advice on how to succeed.