Mounting concern over working conditions in the clothing supply chain in the 1990s spawned the creation of four initiatives, all of which sought to tackle the problem through a joint approach involving industry, NGOs and trade unions. All four organisations - the Ethical Trade Initiative (ETI) in the UK, the Fair Wear Foundation in the Netherlands, and the Fair Labor Association (FLA) and Social Accountability International (SAI) in the US - have played an important role in raising the profile of ethical concerns in supply chains and improving working conditions. This month's briefing looks at the work of the various multi-stakeholder initiatives, their impact on labour standards over the past decade, the advantages and challenges the tripartite approach presents and its effectiveness in tackling ethical issues in business.