The European Union (EU) has submitted a list to the World Trade Organization (WTO) outlining the US products that could be hit with extra import duties  – including clothing and footwear – in retaliation for US tariffs on steel and aluminium.

The EU emphasises the WTO notification is a "procedural step" against what it considers to be safeguard measures. But it says the action is necessary should the bloc "not be exempted from the duties and decide to impose additional customs duties on imports from the US."

The EU also says it may decide to revise or change its list "should that be necessary or appropriate."

Tariffs of 25% on foreign-made steel and 10% on aluminium were imposed by President Trump in March in response to a national security investigation initiated last spring.  

Washington then granted the EU a temporary exemption from these tariffs, extended until 31 May to give time for both sides to reach agreement.

The US wants the EU to agree to quotas on its steel and aluminium exports to the US in return for a permanent exemption.

But leaders of the 28 EU member states want a permanent exemption from the tariffs as a precondition for any trade negotiation with Trump's administration.

The list submitted to the EU comprises goods on which it would impose additional duties ranging from 10% to 50% beginning on 23 March 2021, or the date a WTO dispute settlement panel determines that the US tariffs are in violation of WTO rules. Products include T-shirts, jeans, cotton shorts, trousers and footwear.