Research Methodology

The 1998 Apparel and Footwear Industries Survey was an annual analysis of the critical factors and trends which apparel and footwear manufacturers and distributors consider most important to the success of their business inthe year ahead. This survey is based on the research analysis provided by Benchmark, and the interpretation of this analysis by KSA and the JBA Apparel and Footwear Business Unit. The research was conducted through telephone interviews and carried out by Benchmark(Europe) and Grace Marketing (US).

The interviews, which took approximately 20 minutes each,were carried out in local languages with the key decision makers in each company. Over 300 interviews were carried out within six different countries. The main objectives for thesurvey were to establish the importance of certain key issues regarding:

  • business strategy
  • pre-production
  • planning
  • manufacturing
  • customer service

This survey covers 310 quantitative telephone interviews conducted with senior operations personnel and comprised 50 interviews in the following countries;UK, Spain, France, Germany and Italy conducted by Benchmark Research and 60 interviews in the US conducted by Grace Marketing and incorporated into tabulations by Benchmark Research.

Various sources were used to provide samples for interviewing, including Dun & Bradstreet, the British Library, Kompass, various internet sources and international publications. This research exercise focuses on larger companies with turnover in excess of £20M ($32M). Although the total number of companies surveyed may seem low, in relation to the size of the apparel and footwear market as a whole, it is a statistically valid number.


Table 1:Manufacturer/Distributor Breakdown

Footwear manufacturers 102
Apparel manufacturers 134
Footwear distributors 65
Apparel distributors 54

NB The footwear and apparel figure adds up to 313 and not 304 because there were 9 interviews conducted with companies that manufactured both.

There were several companies that both manufactured and distributed, therefore the number of responses is considerably higher when each sector is added together. The turnover brackets were single code – several respondents could not or would not give a figure for company turnover.

Revenue breakdown
Due to the different currencies used as revenue brackets in the research, the following tables indicate the approximate revenue breakdown:


Table 2: Apparel & Footwearand Turnover Breakdown

UK £20 50M
US $35 500M
France 95 470MF
Germany DM28 140M
Spain Pts2500 12000M
Italy Lira27 140B


UK £50 100M
US $500 1B
France 470 940MF
Germany DM140 280M
Spain Pts12000 24000M
Italy Lira140 280B


UK £100M +
US $1B +
France 940MF +
Germany DM280M +
Spain Pts 24000M +
Italy Lira 280B +


The 1998 Apparel and Footwear Industries survey was carried out by mulitple research agencies co-ordinated by Benchmark Research on behalf of JBA.  This survey has been written in conjunction with Simon Shepheard-Walwyn of Kurt Salmon Associates (KSA), and Rob Jennings and Michael Pearl of JBA’s apparel, footwear business unit.

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